Fifty years of Turkish migration

Signing the Australia-Turkey Migration Agreement, 1967. Australian News and Information Bureau. Reproduced courtesy National Archives of Australia A1200, L65408

Signing the Australia-Turkey Migration Agreement, 1967. Australian News and Information Bureau. Reproduced courtesy National Archives of Australia: A1200, L65408.

Fifty years ago today, on 5 October 1967, the Australian and Turkish governments signed a bilateral agreement to provide assisted passage to Turkish migrants, to help build Australia’s population and expand the workforce. The Australia-Turkey Migration Agreement – Australia’s inaugural agreement with a nation beyond Western Europe – enabled the first major Muslim community to settle in the country. This represented a significant step in the gradual dismantling of the White Australia policy.

Around 19,000 assisted Turkish migrants arrived in Australia between 1968 and 1974. Many, like couple Halit and Şükran Adasal, came with the intention of working hard and saving enough money to return to Turkey. But within three years of their arrival, Şükran had given birth to two daughters, Hale and Funda, and Australia became the family’s home. Hale registered Halit and Şükran Adasal on the museum’s Welcome Wall to honour ‘my parents who left all that they knew for a better life with hope and courage. Their migration planted the seeds of their family roots in Australia for future generations of our family.’

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Meeting the descendants from a disaster at sea

Samuel Elyard, Burning of the Barque India, c 1841. Watercolour on paper, 41.7 x 55 cm. ANMM Collection 00004246

Samuel Elyard, Burning of the Barque India, c 1841. Watercolour on paper, 41.7 x 55 cm. ANMM Collection 00004246.

One of the museum’s most-requested paintings for public viewing is a dramatic watercolour by Sydney landscape artist Samuel Elyard (1817–1910) titled Burning of the Barque India (c 1841). Recently we arranged a viewing for cousins Catherine Bell and John Grant. Their great-great-grandparents John Scott Grant and Ann Grant (née Kilpatrick) were survivors of the ill-fated migrant ship, which caught fire and sank in the South Atlantic Ocean on 19 July 1841.

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A migration story in stitch

One of my favourite objects in the museum’s collection is a charming needlework sampler made by 19-year-old assisted immigrant Julia Donovan on board the Carnatic in January 1879. Immigration records show that Julia arrived in Rockhampton, Queensland, from England on 5 February 1879, and presumably went into domestic service in the growing port town.

Needlework sampler made by Julia Donovan on board Carnatic en route to Australia, 1879

Needlework sampler made by Julia Donovan on board Carnatic en route to Australia, 1879

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Waves of migration returns on Australia Day

The museum’s award-winning digital projection Waves of migration returns this Sunday, Australia Day, to once again illuminate the museum’s iconic roofline with a rich tapestry of migration stories drawn from our collection.

Waves of migration illuminates the roof of the museum in Darling Harbour

Waves of migration illuminates the roof of the museum in Darling Harbour

Waves of migration explores the history of migration to Australia and the compelling stories of those who’ve come across the seas – from British convicts and early settlers, to Jewish refugees and displaced persons; from post-war European migrants and Ten Pound Poms, to Indochinese boat people and seaborne asylum seekers from Afghanistan. Continue reading

Suitcases, boats and bridges

Last week I was invited to speak about the museum’s work at the Suitcases, boats and bridges: telling migrant stories in Australian museums workshop, organised by Dr Nina Parish from the University of Bath and Dr Chiara O’Reilly from the University of Sydney. The workshop brought together academics, museum professionals and museum studies students to discuss how migrant stories have been collected and articulated in a number of Australian museums, ranging from large government-funded institutions such as ours, to smaller regional, suburban or volunteer-run museums.

Suitcases and boats in Passengers, the museum's permanent exhibition about Australia's immigration history. Photographer Andrew Frolows

Suitcases and boats in Passengers, the museum’s permanent exhibition about Australia’s immigration history. Photographer Andrew Frolows

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History and knitting

Magda and Anu Mihkelson wearing knitted hats in Sweden, 1948

Magda and Anu Mihkelson wearing knitted hats in Sweden, 1948. ANMM Collection Reproduced courtesy Anu Mihkelson

Over the past few weeks I have been working my way through a wonderful collection of textiles, handcrafts, photographs and family heirlooms donated by Anu Mihkelson, who as a toddler migrated from Sweden to Australia with her Estonian parents Oskar and Magda in 1948.

The Mihkelson collection is one of the museum’s richest collections relating to Australia’s post-World War II immigration history. Some of the material will go on display later this year in our Passengers Gallery but in the meantime I thought I would show you a few pieces from the collection that combine two of my favourite things – history and knitting!

Anu’s mother Magda Mihkelson was an accomplished knitter who used her needlework skills to help contribute to the family income. She knitted traditional Estonian Haapsalu lace scarves and intricately-patterned cardigans to order, both while part of the vibrant Estonian refugee community in Sweden in the 1940s, and later amongst the rural migrant cane-cutting and mining hubs of northern Queensland, where Oskar Mihkelson worked.

Oskar, Anu and Magda Mihkelson in Sweden, 1948

Oskar, Anu and Magda Mihkelson in Sweden, 1948. Magda wears a knitted angora bolero. ANMM Collection Reproduced courtesy Anu Mihkelson

Magda was such a prolific knitter that she even knitted up all her leftover wool as the family travelled by train from Sweden to Genoa, Italy, to board the Lloyd Triestino liner Toscana for the six-week voyage to Australia.

Magda knitting beside Anu on Toscana en route to Australia, 1948

Magda knitting beside Anu on Toscana en route to Australia, 1948. ANMM Collection Reproduced courtesy Anu Mihkelson

Anu has written a poem about her mother’s knitting that speaks volumes about women’s work, war and displacement, the industriousness of migrants, and the adaptation of European cultural traditions to the Australian context. She has kindly allowed me to reproduce the poem here and I hope you enjoy it.

Knitting 
Anu Mihkelson

She knitted when the house was asleep
Occasionally at the child in the cot she would peep
Peace around her to concentrate
With each item a little more money to make.
Jacquard, chevron, cable,
Samples set out on the table
Haapsalu scarves to slip through a wedding ring
Others to wear by those who sing
At an Estonian Song Festival.

Haapsalu scarf knitted in lily of the valley lace pattern

Haapsalu scarf knitted in lily of the valley lace pattern. ANMM Collection Gift from Anu Mihkelson

Colourful gloves, bonnets, socks,
Patterns counted off graph-paper blocks,
Traditional snowflakes respecting the trust
Of Estonia left behind, in war’s dust.
In Sweden she did this in earnest
For she was a refugee
And her work was done for a fee.
In Estonia it was a woman’s art
To knit, crochet and dress smart
But then in 1944 with her life she fled
Knitting needles now clicked the feelings not said.

Anu's colourful knitted hat

Anu’s colourful knitted hat. ANMM Collection Gift from Anu Mihkelson

The nickel plated needles are worn
Paper ends to hold the stitches, now torn;
Small double-pointed needles
For socks and mittens and cable sweaters.
Crochet hooks in different sizes –
Later the handkerchiefs won prizes.

Anu's pink knitted jacket

Anu’s pink knitted jacket. ANMM Collection Gift from Anu Mihkelson

All the pieces tell a story
Of migration, and someone else’s war glory
My pink jacket and blue skirt with straps
Other cultures fused
The Christening shawl not used
Since I grew and needed a skirt.
All packed in a trunk
I close the lid,
On all she did.

Anu's blue knitted skirt with straps

Anu’s blue knitted skirt with straps. ANMM Collection Gift from Anu Mihkelson

Life was not to be a failure –
Off again, this time to Australia.
At Tully and Mission Beach
For her family safety was within reach
Swim trunks of merino
White angora bolero
Jacket with cherry bunches
Many hours she hunches
The pattern was wrong
It took so long
The client’s payment seemed a song.

Magda's knitted jacket with cherry bunches

Magda’s knitted jacket with cherry bunches. ANMM Collection Gift from Anu Mihkelson

Then off to Mount Isa we went
There eight years were spent.
Days were hot and dry
Still, there was wool –
And the winter nights were cool
She knitted, ready for a southern clime,
Sydney … it was time.

Anu sewing and Magda knitting in Mount Isa, 1957-58

Anu sewing and Magda knitting in Mount Isa, 1957-58. ANMM Collection Reproduced courtesy Anu Mihkelson

You can read more about the Mihkelson family’s incredible journey from Estonia to Australia via Sweden in Anu’s books Three Suitcases and a Three-Year-Old (Kangaroo Press 1999) and The View from Here (self-published 2011).

Kim Tao
Curator, Post-Federation Immigration

Stories of growing up in Australia

Earlier this month I was delighted to receive a copy of the new book by award-winning author Nadia Wheatley called Australians All: A history of growing up from the Ice Age to the apology (Allen & Unwin 2013). The book explores the history of growing up in Australia through 80 personal stories, ranging from prominent people such as Ethel Turner and Eddie Mabo, to many lesser-known Australians.

Australians All cover

Australians All by Nadia Wheatley. Courtesy Allen & Unwin

The stories are set against a chronology of significant events including the arrival of the first boat people, the gold rush, the Great Depression, the two world wars, the Vietnam War and the national apology to the Stolen Generations. They are woven together with a rich selection of historical images as well as evocative new illustrations by artist Ken Searle.

In Australians All, Nadia Wheatley has effectively situated personal lived experiences within a broader context of local, national and international histories. This helps to reinforce the notion that history is not a series of disparate events but a fascinating intersection of stories, causes and effects that have resonance in both local and global communities. Wheatley has also succeeded in drawing out shared childhood experiences across place and time, cultures and generations, and because of this I think Australians All will become a very valuable social history resource for young readers today and in the future.

Tu Do by Ken Searle

Illustration of Vietnamese refugee boat Tu Do. Copyright Ken Searle. Courtesy Allen & Unwin

One thing that makes this book even more special is that it features the story of sisters Dzung and Dao Lu, who fled South Vietnam with their family in 1977 in the fishing boat Tu Do, which is now part of our museum’s floating vessel collection. Dzung and Dao’s father, Tan Lu, had built Tu Do (meaning ‘Freedom’) at the end of the Vietnam War, specifically to escape life under the new communist regime.

Lu family on Tu Do

Tan Lu (left) and Dzung and Dao (standing and sitting on hatch) on Tu Do, 1977. Photographer Michael Jensen. ANMM Collection

Prior to departure in September 1977 Tan staged an engine breakdown so that surveillance of Tu Do would be relaxed. He installed a more powerful replacement engine and his group of 38 passengers set off in the dark. Dzung, six, and Dao, four, had been given cough medicine to keep them quiet, and chaos erupted several hours out to sea when they realised Dzung had been left behind! They returned to find her, crying and mosquito-bitten in the mangroves. The voyage resumed, with Tu Do eventually making landfall near Darwin on 21 November 1977. The Lu family were transferred to a migrant hostel in Brisbane and were later granted asylum.

Dao, Dzung and Tuyet Lu

Dao and Dzung Lu with their mother Tuyet, 2010. Photographer Andrew Frolows. ANMM Collection

Dzung and Dao Lu were among the 137,000 Indochinese refugees who were resettled in Australia in the 1970s and 1980s. Their story, along with others in Australians All, highlights the importance of childhood journeys and experiences in shaping, and understanding, our national history. The museum is pleased that this story will be more accessible to younger audiences.

The restored Tu Do at the museum

The restored Tu Do at the museum, 2012. Photographer Andrew Frolows

The fishing boat built by Dzung and Dao’s father is now displayed at the museum’s wharves and stands as testament to the courage, hope and ingenuity of all refugees. You might like to visit Tu Do during Refugee Week, which runs from 16-22 June 2013, and celebrate the many contributions made by refugees to Australian society.

Kim Tao
Curator, Post-Federation Immigration

A chance encounter in Albury

Last week I went to Albury to install our travelling exhibition On their own – Britain’s child migrants at Albury LibraryMuseum. This lively venue is the only regional stop in our national tour, which has so far taken in Adelaide, Melbourne, Fremantle and Canberra.

While Albury was not a major destination for British child migrants, it does have strong links with Australia’s immigration history because of its proximity to the Bonegilla Migrant Reception and Training Centre near Wodonga. Bonegilla (1947–71) was Australia’s largest and longest-operating migrant reception centre and many of the post-war migrants who passed through it later settled in the Albury-Wodonga region.

Border Mail article, 1950

Border Mail article, 1950. Pam Wright is front row, second from right

I was fascinated to discover that a small group of British children was sent to St John’s Orphanage in Thurgoona, in the outer suburbs of Albury, in 1950. The 22 girls sailed on Asturias and their arrival was reported in the Border Mail under the misguided headline ‘Orphans arrive here to start their life afresh.’ One of the youngest in the group, five-year-old Pam Wright, was told she was an orphan, even though both her parents were alive. She says, ‘The day before I was shipped, I was with my father.’

Pam’s father tracked her down in Australia and tried to claim her but was told she had been declared a ward of the state. After pleading his case to politicians, Pam was eventually released into her father’s care. In 1990, 40 years after being sent from England, she was finally reunited with her mother. You can hear more about Pam’s story in her interview with ABC Radio.

Curator Kim Tao and Pam Wright at the exhibition

Curator Kim Tao and Pam Wright at the exhibition, 2013. Photographer Jules Boag/Albury LibraryMuseum

Pam spoke eloquently about her experiences and their enduring impact on her life at the official opening of the exhibition on 23 February. I spoke of how stories like Pam’s reveal Albury’s connections to broader national and international narratives of child migration. I also mentioned how the exhibition has created opportunities for many former child migrants to reunite with family, friends and the material culture relating to their migration. But I never expected the drama that would soon unfold!

As I led visitors on a tour of On their own, I could hear the commotion at the back of the group when a visitor, Connie – who by chance was visiting from WA – rounded the corner and saw her younger sister Beryl in a photograph in the exhibition. Once her shock and excitement subsided, Connie realised that she too was in the photograph, along with her three brothers. All five siblings were sent to the Fairbridge Farm School at Pinjarra, south of Perth, and this photograph captured them on the very day they arrived in Fremantle on Ormonde in 1950, the same year as Pam Wright.

Children with belongings, 1950. Connie (L) and Beryl (R) with their three brothers

Children with belongings, 1950. Connie (L) and Beryl (R) with their three brothers. State Library of WA 005080D

I had been intrigued by this photograph since I first saw it in the State Library of WA back in 2009. It was part of a collection of well-constructed arrival photographs, surely designed to encourage continued government and public support for the child migration schemes that were once considered generous philanthropy but are now widely condemned as flawed social policy. I was interested in the subjects of this well-composed photograph – the boys in their distinctive striped Fairbridge ties; the girl on the left, who we now know is Connie, with her Orient Line suitcase – but I never expected them to be a family group.

Connie and Beryl with their photo in the exhibition

Connie and Beryl with their photo in the exhibition, 2013. Photographer Kim Tao/ANMM

This latest encounter during the national tour of On their own once again reinforces the value of telling personal stories and presenting living history in museums. It also demonstrates the wonderful role museums play in collecting this history, making it accessible and reconnecting people with their heritage and material culture. Here’s to Connie, Beryl and chance encounters.

Kim Tao
Curator, Post-Federation Immigration

On their own – Britain’s child migrants is showing at Albury LibraryMuseum from 23 February to 28 April 2013.

Testing, testing … a sneak preview of our rooftop lightshow

Last Friday night the museum’s designer, Hamish, and I braved the record heat, blustery winds and rain in Sydney to attend a test run of the museum’s dynamic new lightshow, Waves of migration.This thirteen-minute animated show explores immigration to Australia and the compelling stories of those who’ve come across the seas to this nation of migrants. It premieres at 8.30 pm this Saturday night, Australia Day, on the roof of the museum – marking the first time the façade of our building has been used as an extension of the exhibition space.

Lightshow projection on museum roof

The museum’s roof becomes a canvas for the Waves of migration lightshow

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100 stories from the museum’s collection

On 29 November 2012 the museum celebrates its 21st year – cue the celebratory fireworks! As part of this milestone we have published a new book 100 Stories from the Australian National Maritime Museum

The book is a treasure trove of tales related to our collection, working on the premise that every object has a story. From the remarkable Saltwater Collection of bark paintings from Arnhem Land to surfboards inspired by the Bra Boys and the 2005 Cronulla race riots, the book reveals the diversity of our collection and Australia’s rich maritime history.

Over the next week or so, we will share some of our curators favourite excerpts from the book, giving you a sneak peek into the publication.

The book is available for purchase on our new online store or as a free eBook for iPad. Head to our website for all of the deatils.

The following excerpt was written by our curator Kim Tao. We hope you enjoy.

Door to freedom

Photo of

Valerie Lederer’s front door key to the family’s house in Vienna, 1938

A few days before boarding the Orient liner SS Orama for Australia in June 1939, Jewish migrant Arthur Lederer wrote ‘Doors’, a poem reflecting on his family’s desperate search for a new home away from Nazi-occupied Europe:

Some doors have hearts it seems to me
They open so invitingly;
You feel they are quite kind – akin
To all the warmth you find within…
Oh, may mine be a friendly door;
May all who cross the threshold o’er
Within find sweet content and rest,
And know each was a welcomed guest. Continue reading

Lions and Dragons and Lanterns oh my!

Swaying, slithering, jumping, bouncing.

A brilliant yellow dragon with a fiery fluorescent belly and menacing eyes turns the corner. Silver flecks along its side catch the sun. The waiting crowds applaud and raise their camera phones to capture the action.

Dragon dance outside the museum, presented by Dong Tam Association

Dragon dance outside the museum, presented by Dong Tam Association

a dragon dance troupe outside the museum

Dragon dance outside the museum, presented by Dong Tam Association

The first day of Spring school holiday programs started with a bang, or a thumping drum and clanging cymbals to be precise, as the first of our free outdoor performances took to the stage- a spectacular of dragon dance, lion dance and extreme martial arts presented by the Dong Tam Association.

This holidays we have been inspired by our beautiful dragnet fishing boat Tu Do ( Freedom) that carried refugees to safer shores in 1971 . When it pulled into Darwin carrying 31 passengers including Than Tan Lu and his young family, whose stories are a part of our permanent exhibition Passengers, Tu Do was just one of many passenger boats from Vietnam carrying people eager to find safe-haven in Australia. Today though, it is one of only three surviving vessels from this period in Australia’s history, and the only one that is still seaworthy and displayed on the water. Tu Do has recently been beautifully restored by a team of curators, conservators and fleet staff at the museum.

It just happens to be just the perfect time of year for celebrating Vietnamese culture as our program’s timing co-incides with the Mooncake or Mid-Autumn festival- a popular lunar harvest festival celebrated in China and Vietnam.  In line with this our family activities space Kids on Deck is themed – Dragon Dreams and Dragnets. Stepping inside Kids on Deck the sound of giggles and squeals fills the room as children try on fancy dress costumes and play with the dragon shadow puppets they have created in the puppet theatre. Others clutch at paint dabbers making delicate painted lotus flowers, or furiously colour bright paper sheets to cut into beautiful lanterns- a traditional activity associated with the mid-autumn festival.

cooking workshop participants

Participants at the Pho-tastic Family Cooking Workshops

This Spring we have also returned to the kitchen for more of our popular cooking workshops, this time for families to enjoy together. The first session of Pho-tastic cooking began last Wednesday with a family friendly tour on the story behind Tu Do. Participants shared their favourite foods and their cooking disaster stories and got to meet our friendly chef Tom who escorted them to the Yots café kitchen. Here they undertook culinary challenges and learned to create a delicious Vietnamese noodle dish, all while dressed to theme and cute as a button in striped aprons and paper chef hats.

lion dancers

Lion Dancers from Sydney Indochinese Youth Sport Association

Lion Dancers from Sydney Indochinese Youth Sport Association

Today the festivities continued as more Lion Dancers, this time from Sydney Indochinese Youth Sport Association provided a captivating finale to the cultural performances. Last week these also included some enchanting and adorable young dancers from Southwest Sydney as Canley Vale, Cabramatta and Lansvale Public School’s Vietnamese, Khmer and Chinese dance troupes performed. Waving scarves, tipping conical hats , tapping coconut shells and fanning chopsticks these young dancers won over the audiences with their beautiful renditions of traditional dance forms.

Kids on Deck: Dragons, Dreams and Dragnets continues every day in holidays and every Sunday in Term 4More information on school holiday programs can be found at www.anmm.gov.au/schoolholidays

Through the eyes of a 13 year old

Spectacles issued to Mall Juske (née Karp)
ANMM Collection

An Estonian woman remembers what it was like being 13. In 1991, Mall Juske described what she saw 42 years earlier on board SS Cyrenia, rolling into the harbour at Fremantle. It was a bright and sunny Sunday as she ‘took a stroll in the town’. She saw a wedding celebration at a church and recalled ‘all those fruits’, milk bars and shops full of handbags. All this must have stood in stark contrast to the young girl and her family’s previous experiences and four-year wait to come to Australia. Continue reading

Object of the Week – Voyage into the unknown: the beautiful white dress

Lina Cesarin, 1950s

Imagine you are a young woman. You are about to leave your family and your home and embark on a long voyage to a strange country to settle with your fiancé, who you have not seen for five years. This is Lina Cesarin’s story.

Lina Cesarin came from a small town in Casarsa in the province of Pordenone, Italy. Her father sailed to the USA in search of work, leaving her mother to raise Lina and her siblings. When Lina was 17 years old, she met Rizzieri Cesarin. After a brief courtship, they were engaged for a year before Rizzieri was invited to sail to Australia in search of ‘la bella vita’ (the good life).

In 1951, Lina farewelled her beloved Rizzieri, who had made a promise to send for her when he was well established in Australia. Rizzieri paid for his ticket on SS Surriento and arrived in Sydney on 18 June 1951. After working in Sydney for a couple of months, Rizzieri moved to Cooma in southern New South Wales, where he helped establish base camps for workers on the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme. During this time, the couple wrote letters to each other and Rizzieri described the challenges of working in Cooma and his hopes for establishing a comfortable home for his bride.

Lina Cesarin's wedding outfit, 1956

In 1956, the time finally came for Lina to leave her home for Australia. After a heartbreaking farewell to her mother, Lina boarded SS Neptunia, alone, with no friends or relatives on board. On 9 July 1956, Lina arrived in Sydney and was reunited with her fiancé. Just two days later, on a cool winter’s day, Lina made her way to a church in Leichhardt, wearing this beautiful ivory satin dress, with a white lace veil and a pair of gloves. Within a few hours, Lina and Rizzieri were married.

Lina’s experience was not unusual. During the late 1940s to the 1950s, Italian immigration to Australia peaked following the devastating economic impact of World War II. Unlike Lina, some brides came to Australia to meet their husbands for the first time. They were proxy brides, who had participated in a marriage ceremony back in their hometowns with an elected relative, acting as a ‘stand-in’ groom for their absent fiancés. These proxy marriages were arranged based on a few key factors. A young man would write to his family back in Italy, expressing a wish to marry a ‘respectable’ woman who came from a nearby village and most importantly, a ‘good family’. Letters were sent, photos exchanged and the ceremony conducted. When the bride embarked on the voyage to Australia, her husband would be waiting to greet her at the port and they would be introduced for the first time as husband and wife. This process may seem archaic today; however, it must be seen in light of the strong sense of duty held by these women and men. The concept of ‘mia famiglia’ (my family) remained a pervasive and central force within Italian communities, and it motivated migrants to send for a bride with common expectations and values from their homeland, to start a new life in Australia.

This dress is a treasured symbol of the many Italian brides who sailed to Australia, uncertain about how life would turn out in their new country and also, with their new husbands. Lina’s story and the experiences of the proxy brides are an important part of Australia’s migration history. They represent a time when ‘bride ships’ were welcomed to Australian shores by crowds of hopeful fiancés and husbands. These couples went on to establish vibrant social and cultural traditions that contributed significantly to Australia’s dynamic multicultural community.

Nicole Cama
Curatorial Assistant

Object of the Week

Object of the Week: Upright yacht-style piano

From 1788 to the late 1890s, every single immigrant to Australia – convict, assisted or free – shared a common experience they would never forget: a passage under sail in a crowded ship lasting anywhere from 60 to 200 days.

On any voyage, between 200 and 400 people could be crammed into a small ship (sometimes less than 35 metres long) surrounded by a seemingly never ending ocean, day after day, after day. Even though they sailed in an era when things moved at a pace less hectic than now, the length of the passage to Australia inflicted tedium beyond belief.

So what did these reluctant travellers do to relieve the monotony of life onboard these ships? The diaries of emigrants from this period tell us that some simply slept, drank, ate, and slept again. Others played cards, kept journals and wrote letters, read books, drew and painted. Some caught fish, sharks and birds. Others gossiped, fought, consummated, and even ended relations. People held prayer meetings, published ship board newspapers, and produced, directed and acted in plays.

Aucher Freres yacht-style piano, ANMM Collection

Aucher Freres yacht-style piano, ANMM Collection

For many, music, singing and dancing would have been a highlight on a lengthy and monotonous voyage. Yacht pianos such as the one featured here were essential ship board equipment during 19th century migration to Australia and have social, historic and technological significance.

This walnut upright yacht-style piano was made by Aucher Freres, in Paris, France. It has a folding keyboard, metal fold down handles on both sides, and metal pedals. Access to the piano strings can be made through an opening below the keyboard, as well as the lift-up top.

Built in various shapes and sizes – grand, barrel, player, square and upright – the piano has undergone a number of significant changes since the early 1700s which reflect the piano’s different uses. Square pianos were musical instruments that were popular for domestic music making from the time of its invention in the 1700s to about 1860 in Europe and 1880 in the United States. Over time the size of square piano increased, and by the mid-1850s they were often larger and heavier than comparable grand pianos.

The increased size and weight of the square and grand pianos made them quite impractical for many homes and a more compact piano – the upright or yacht piano – was perfected by Robert Wornum of London in 1829.

On board some ships – such as the Blackball Line out of Liverpool or those owned by the East India Company – the owners provided bands to entertain the passengers. On board other vessels, passengers were encouraged to play music on the ship’s upright piano, while others would sing and dance along.

For many passengers singing and dancing in the light of the moon would have provided one of the more pleasant memories of the voyage, boosting morale, passing the time, and making the long trip out to Australia worthwhile.

Award for best exhibition of 2011: On their own – Britain’s child migrants

Last Friday, the Australian National Maritime Museum won the Exhibitions & Public Engagement award for On their own – Britain’s child migrants at the 2011 IMAGinE Awards.

ANMM IMAGinE Award 2011

Mary Louise Williams, Director ANMM, Kim Tao, Curator ANMM accepting IMAGinE award from Roxanne Lambie

Mary Louise, ANMM director says:

“The museum is very proud to win an award for this exhibition. It’s an example where collaboration between museums can work so well and at the same time have such a connection with the community.”

The exhibition opened at the museum last year and is now touring around Australia. It’s due to open at the Immigration Museum in Melbourne on 13 October.

The exhibition presents the stories of former child migrants and the child migration schemes that saw more than 100,000 children sent from Britain to Canada, Australia and other Commonwealth countries from the 1860s, up until the 1960s.  The children were sent to countries like Australia by charitable and religious organisations, with government support, in the belief that their lives would improve, and that they would provide much-needed labour and increase the population.

Few were orphans; many came from families who were unable to care for them. The lives of these children changed dramatically and fortunes varied. Some succeeded in creating new futures. Others suffered lonely, brutal childhoods. All experienced disruption and separation from their family and homeland.

Child migration schemes received criticism from the outset, yet continued until the 1960s. Formal apologies were made by the Australian Government in 2009 and the British Government in 2010, but many former child migrants and their families are still coming to terms with their experiences

An important part of the exhibition is the online portal that includes a message board for former child migrants and their family members to record their own memories about their experiences. We invite you to visit the website: www.britainschildmigrants.com

Stewart Lee

In 1955 four-year-old Stewart Lee was sent to Australia by the Fairbridge Society Photograph courtesy Sydney Lee

This exhibition is a collaboration between the Australian National Maritime Museum and National Museums Liverpool, UK.

The IMAGinE Awards are presented by Museums & Galleries NSW, Museums Australia (NSW), Regional Public Galleries NSW and Museums Australia (ACT) .