Fifty years of Turkish migration

Signing the Australia-Turkey Migration Agreement, 1967. Australian News and Information Bureau. Reproduced courtesy National Archives of Australia A1200, L65408

Signing the Australia-Turkey Migration Agreement, 1967. Australian News and Information Bureau. Reproduced courtesy National Archives of Australia: A1200, L65408.

Fifty years ago today, on 5 October 1967, the Australian and Turkish governments signed a bilateral agreement to provide assisted passage to Turkish migrants, to help build Australia’s population and expand the workforce. The Australia-Turkey Migration Agreement – Australia’s inaugural agreement with a nation beyond Western Europe – enabled the first major Muslim community to settle in the country. This represented a significant step in the gradual dismantling of the White Australia policy.

Around 19,000 assisted Turkish migrants arrived in Australia between 1968 and 1974. Many, like couple Halit and Şükran Adasal, came with the intention of working hard and saving enough money to return to Turkey. But within three years of their arrival, Şükran had given birth to two daughters, Hale and Funda, and Australia became the family’s home. Hale registered Halit and Şükran Adasal on the museum’s Welcome Wall to honour ‘my parents who left all that they knew for a better life with hope and courage. Their migration planted the seeds of their family roots in Australia for future generations of our family.’

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Man in the machine: submarines, ships, sailors and National memory

Johnnie and Mehmet concept drawing detail. Image: Alexander Knox 2015.

Johnnie and Mehmet concept drawing detail. Image: Alexander Knox 2015.

This is not a blog about the current Federal election … this is about something much more enduring and exciting – a bold new art installation that plays with the idea of animus, memory, the machinery of war, and to a degree geopolitics. It will be launched in the coming months on the forecourt at the Australian National Maritime Museum, and today, International Museums Day with its focus on cultural landscapes, seems an appropriate time to reveal something of the art work.

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AE2 remembered 100 years on

ANMM staff stand on the stern of HMAS Anzac after the AE2 commemoration ceremony. Left to right: Dr James Hunter (Curator, RAN Maritime Archaeology), Kevin Sumption (Director), and Dr Nigel Erskine (Head of Research).

ANMM staff stand on the stern of HMAS Anzac after the AE2 commemoration ceremony. Left to right: Dr James Hunter (Curator, RAN Maritime Archaeology), Kevin Sumption (Director), and Dr Nigel Erskine (Head of Research).

Between 17 and 25 April, I travelled to Turkey to participate in a closing conference and commemoration ceremony associated with the submarine AE2. AE2 was one of two Australian submarines to participate in World War I. It gained notoriety for penetrating the Dardanelles, a narrow and well-defended Turkish waterway that became a graveyard for a number of British and French warships — including two submarines — during an ill-fated naval campaign in March 1915.

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Anzac Cove from the water: the Gallipoli diary of 2nd Engineer George Armstrong

George Armstrong’s diary

100 years after the Anzac landings at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915, the museum has acquired a rare diary written on board a transport ship lying off Anzac Cove.

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Before Gallipoli – Turkey’s other great victory

This 1973 dinner menu from the P&O liner SS Oronsay was part of a series of paintings of famous sea battles by John Smith. This image depicts the Battle of the Dardanelles, 18 March 1915.  ANMM Collection Gift from William Brennan

This 1973 dinner menu from the P&O liner SS Oronsay was part of a series of paintings of famous sea battles by John Smith. This image depicts the Battle of the Dardanelles, 18 March 1915. ANMM Collection Gift from William Brennan

On 18 March 2015, Turkey will commemorate the 100th anniversary of a victory over Allied forces just prior to the Gallipoli land campaign on 25 April 1915. The defeat of an Allied fleet attempting to force the Dardanelles Strait is a little-known story in the tale of the Anzacs, but one that changed the whole nature of the ill-fated campaign.

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Reading prayers at the bottom of the sea – The harrowing journey of submarine AE2

AE2 at Portsmouth, England, 1912

AE2 at Portsmouth, England, 1912

The first images of the interior of submarine AE2 were shown on ABC television on 3 July 2014 – almost 100 years since the vessel was scuttled in the Sea of Marmara on 30 April 1915.

While interest grows in what the wreck might reveal about the RAN submarine that was the first vessel to breach Turkish defences of the Dardanelles Strait, an account of the incredible voyage written by Stoker Petty Officer Henry James Elly Kinder sheds a human light on the story. Kinder’s account, a memoir written after he returned from several years in Turkish prison camps, has not been published.

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Silent Anzac – Inside submarine AE2 for the first time in 100 years

Officers and crew on deck of the newly commissioned submarine AE2 at Portsmouth, England, 1912  ANMM Collection

Officers and crew on deck of the newly commissioned submarine AE2 at Portsmouth, England, 1912 ANMM Collection

The Royal Australian Navy submarine AE2 was scuttled in deep water in the Sea of Marmara on 30 April 1915 after it had run the gauntlet of Turkish minefields, warships and forts in the Dardanelles Straits. AE2 was behind Turkish lines the night before the Anzacs landed at Gallipoli.

Last month, for the first time in almost 100 years the conning tower hatch of submarine AE2 was opened. High definition cameras and imaging sonar were inserted through the opening and an ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) surveyed inside the submarine.

AE2 has remained underwater relatively untouched since Commander Stoker ordered the crew to dive overboard and left the hatch slightly ajar to assist in quickly scuttling the vessel. It has since been a home to marine growth, fish and a large conga eel.

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Around the world in the 1800s : The voyage of the SUNBEAM

On Monday 4 July 1887, an elegant steam yacht glided into the waters of Sydney Harbour, having left England the year before. The harbour was alive. Its breezes filled the sails of hundreds of yachts that had turned out in welcome and rustled along the shoreline where a lively atmosphere sprang from the large crowds who had been anticipating the yacht’s arrival for days.

Onboard was Lord Thomas Brassey, future governor of Victoria and founder of the volunteer naval reserves. Despite Lord Brassey’s stature, however, the adoration of the Sydney crowd belonged to his wife, the celebrated travel writer Lady Annie Brassey, and to the vessel itself.

The yacht was the Sunbeam and it had already carried the Brasseys over many sea miles, having completed, a decade earlier, the first circumnavigation of the world by a private steam yacht. Australians and international audiences alike had followed this historic journey through Lady Brassey’s best-selling book, A Voyage in the Sunbeam (1878), which was published in nine editions and seventeen languages. The success of the book had taken its author by surprise and encouraged her to publish three more accounts of the family’s adventures onboard the much-loved Sunbeam.

Steam yacht SUNBEAM on Sydney Harbour, 1887. ANMM Collection 00013812

Steam yacht SUNBEAM on Sydney Harbour, 1887. ANMM Collection 00013812

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Object of the Week

Object of the Week: Dardanelles – 1915 – Our Heroes

This hand crocheted cotton tray cloth or antimacassar was produced to commemorate Australia’s involvement in the Dardanelles campaign of World War I. It depicts a naval ship flanked by two Union Jacks, and the phrase ‘DARDANELLES / 1915 / OUR HEROES’. Crocheting patterns like this appeared in many women’s journals and magazines during World War I such as Australian Home Journal, Australian Woman’s Mirror, and Woman’s Budget. A variety of uses and patterns were supplied – milk jug covers, pillowcases, bedspreads, table runners, table cloths – all with similar patriotic designs. The maker of this particular piece is unknown. Similar examples are held in the Australian War Memorial and Powerhouse Museum collections.

Hand crocheted cloth c 1915, ANMM Collection

Hand crocheted cloth c 1915, ANMM Collection

The crocheted piece represents the patriotism felt by the Australian community for Australia’s involvement in the Allied attempt to capture the Dardanelles in World War I and the consequent Gallipoli Campaign.

Initially the Dardanelles campaign was a naval operation to capture the Dardanelles (the strait in Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara) from Turkish defences, allowing Allied naval forces through to disrupt shipping and capture Constantinople – the capital of the Ottoman Empire and an ally of Germany. Despite the success of the Royal Australian Navy submarine AE2 breaching Turkish defences in the Dardanelles on 25 April 1915, the Allied forces were unsuccessful in forcing their way through the heavily defended strait and sustained heavy losses.

In a new plan, British, French, Australian and New Zealand troops invaded and attempted occupy the Gallipoli Peninsula in April 1915, in the hopes of eliminating the shore-based Turkish defences and opening the Dardanelles to the Allied navies. Australian forces landed at what is now known as ANZAC Cove on 25 April 1915, and despite attempts at breaking through Turkish lines in the early days, the campaign resulted in a stalemate until the evacuation of troops in December. The Gallipoli campaign ended in Allied defeat with over 140,000 Allied casualties, more than 44,000 of whom died.

Other items relating to the Dardanelles and Gallipoli campaigns are now on the Australian National Maritime Museum’s on-line collection.