Old Wrecks, ‘Black Reefs’

Invasive corallimorphs have colonised a modern shipwreck at Palmyra Atoll in the Line Islands. The corallimorphs have benefitted from a phase shift in the reef’s ecosystem brought on by the shipwreck’s iron components leaching into the water column. Image: Susan White/US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Invasive corallimorphs have colonised a modern shipwreck at Palmyra Atoll in the Line Islands. The corallimorphs have benefitted from a phase shift in the reef’s ecosystem brought on by the shipwreck’s iron components leaching into the water column. Image: Susan White/US Fish and Wildlife Service.

This past January, a collaborative research team comprising maritime archaeologists from the Silentworld Foundation and the museum conducted a shipwreck survey at Kenn Reefs in Australia’s Coral Sea Territory. The team relocated a number of historic shipwrecks documented by the Queensland Museum in the 1980s, as well as four new wreck sites. The Kenn Reefs complex is a seamount system located within the ‘Outer Route’, a seaway used by nineteenth-century mariners in an effort to avoid the Great Barrier Reef when travelling to and from Australia’s east coast. The discovery of multiple shipwreck sites of nineteenth-century vintage at Kenn Reefs demonstrates the hazards faced by mariners as they transited through waters that were insufficiently charted. Field investigations included reef-top inspections, metal detector and magnetometer surveys, and diver-based ground-truthing of observed features and buried anomalies.

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Ashmore Reef Expedition 2015 – Part Three

The first task today was to buoy the major features of the site including the two anchor clusters, the iron carronades and the various grouping of iron knees and riders and then plot the positions of these features onto a site plan with the help of a GPS.
Once that task was completed additional teams of divers — led by archaeologists Paul Hundley (Silentworld Foundation) and Peter Illich (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority) — entered the water to assess, measure and then record the features. At the same time the photographic team — led by Xanthe Rivett (Silentworld Foundation) and assisted by Grant Luckman (Department of the Environment) recorded the artefact assessment and survey work and supplemented the survey teams records by taking photographic close ups of various distinctive features, such as the anchor chain, anchor rings, carronade muzzles, touch holes and slides.

Paul Hundley and Jacqui Mullen from the Silentworld Foundation recording the large Pering anchors

Paul Hundley and Jacqui Mullen from the Silentworld Foundation recording the large Pering anchors. Photo courtesy Xanthe Rivett, Silentworld Foundation.

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Make your own marine creatures

Since September 2014, museum staff and visitors have been working with Ghost Nets Australia to create a large coral bombora (or ‘bommie’) sculpture out of ghost nets and marine debris. This collaborative art project aims to raise awareness of threats to marine ecosystems from fishing industries, discarded rubbish and marine debris. All the ghost net and marine debris materials being used for this project have been collected by Mapoon Land and Sea Rangers and volunteers from the Mapoon beaches in Cape York, Queensland.

The ghost nets bommie in progress, including creatures made from discarded thongs, rope, nets and other marine debris.

Close up of the ghost nets bommie in progress, including creatures made from discarded thongs, rope, ghost nets and other marine debris. Photo by Michelle Mortimer.

The sculpture will be on show in our summer exhibition Voyage to the Deep: Underwater Adventures as part of the seafloor environment.

We are continuing to add to the bommie sculpture over the coming months, and encourage our visitors on site and online to contribute their own creative sea creature sculptures to bring the reef to life. All ages are welcome to contribute!

A fish made from recycled fishing nets.

A fish made from ghost nets and marine debris. Photo by Ester Sarkadi-Clarke

Collect your materials

As you can see from the photos of the scupltural ghost net bommie and marine creatures so far, it is made of found materials collected from beaches: nets, rope, bottles, thongs and other discarded objects. We suggest that your creatures are also made of marine debris and recycled materials, or other materials from bushland or parks if you are not near to the coast (remember to clean the recycled materials before using them).

Get inspired

Coral made from rope and fishing debris.

Coral made from rope and fishing debris. Photo by Ester Sarkadi-Clarke.

Think about what types of marine flora or fauna you can create from found objects—there are infinite numbers of creative ideas. Some examples so far include rope-wrapped coral, plastic bottle fish, or starfish made of thongs.

For ideas and downloadable instructions for creating your marine creatures, head to the ‘kids craft’ section of our Voyage to the Deep website.

You can also take a look at our Flickr album to see some of our creatures so far and to follow the progress of the reef as it continues to grow.

Share your work

Share your creation with us to have it added to the sculpture. You can visit the museum in person to bring in what you have made or come along to one of our summer Ghost Nets Weaving Workshops.

If you can’t make it to the museum, you can still contribute! Email a photo of your marine creatures to web@anmm.gov.au and we’ll add it to our virtual ghost net reef on Flickr. Please include details of the marine life that you were inspired by, and the found materials you used to make your creations. You can also post creations via mail to the museum:

Australian National Maritime Museum
2 Murray Street
Darling Harbour
Sydney, NSW 2000

We look forward to seeing what you make!

– Ester Sarkadi-Clarke, Ghost Nets Project Intern

You can contribute to the ghost nets bommie before Voyage to the Deep opens on 9 December 2014, and throughout the duration of the exhibition until 27 April 2015.

Read more about ghost nets and this bommie project on the blog post Creating art from ghost nets, and find out more about the important work of Ghost Nets Australia on the Ghost Nets Australia website.

This project is proudly supported by Blackmores.

Ferguson Reef archaeology expedition – 26 and 27 March

Tuesday 26 March

This morning the weather conditions appeared to be improving on yesterday’s so we sent off four teams to work on the Ferguson site.

Team One consisting of Frits and John dove on a series of magnetic anomalies off the south western side of Ferguson Reef, Gil and Greg in Team Two measured up an anchor at the northern part of the site, Peter and Jacqui in Team Three measured a ‘flat’ anchor and Grant and Andrew in Team Four measured an anchor in the surf zone. Whilst all this was going on Xanthe took photographs of the work in progress and I monitored the work from the surface whilst taking part in an open classroom discussion via telephone through the DART virtual excursion program of the NSW Department of Education.

As the teams returned from the wrecksite the whole area was struck by a series of rain squalls drenching everyone – well at least it saved us the job of washing the dive gear.

After lunch, sea conditions appeared to have quietened down once again and in almost perfect conditions we set off to dive on the site. Gil, Greg and I went to measure the length of a stud link anchor chain that was attached to a ‘picked in’ anchor. Peter and Jacqui jumped in to measure up the various iron knees, assisted by Andrew, John and Frits armed with metal detectors they commenced a non-disturbance metal detector survey of the site to find out ‘what lies beneath’. Continue reading

Frederick Reef Archaeological Survey – Day 7

Tues, 10 Jan 2012

Today my team was assigned the task of doing a SCUBA survey of the outside coral reef, directly opposite the buoy making the anchor chain on the inside.  We entered the water at 9 am for a 40-minute dive.  During that time we found copper fastening, keel staples, a large piece of lead which may weigh over 500 kg! 

Jenni in her scuba gear under water

Jenni Mullen on a dive. Photographer: Xanthe Rivett

We swapped tanks for a second dive, but had to wait on a surface interval of one hour.  We went back out and got in another 40-minute dive before lunch.

We had a mandatory two hour surface interval after our second dive, and then headed out a third time. It was on this dive that we saw a piece of timber in deep water, but because this was our third dive for the day we weren’t able to get down that deep without compromising our no decompression limits.

We ended the day as usual with a great dinner and photos.  Tonight we had a special talk by James from Flinders Uni on his work on Australian Colonial Navy vessels.

Cheers
Paul Hundley  (Sr. Curator and archaeologist)