Maritime history links between Australia and Indonesia

Indonesian sailors in Sydney in 1945 listening to the proclamation of Indonesian independence, recreated for the 1946 film Black Armada by Joris Ivens. National Film and Sound Archive, Australia

Indonesian sailors in Sydney in 1945 listening to the proclamation of Indonesian independence, recreated for the 1946 film Indonesia Calling by Joris Ivens. National Film and Sound Archive, Australia

This weekend (25-26th February 2017) the President of Indonesia will visit Australia for the first time since being elected in 2014. President Joko Widodo will be talking with the Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull. Much of the discussion – typical of  Australia’s long relationship with its northern neighbour – will undoubtedly be about maritime related affairs. As Indonesia furthers its policy of focusing on maritime development as one of fundamental importance in an archaepeligo of around 18,000  islands, the historical maritime links between the two countries should not be forgotten.

In honour of the President’s visit to Sydney over the weekend, the museum will display an exhibition that explores one of the most significant – and largely forgotten – periods of strong bonds based on maritime links in the two nations histories. The display Black Armada – Australia’s support for Indonesian Independence 1945-1949 was developed for the 75th anniversary of independence in August 2015. The exhibition has been on display at the Museum Benteng Vredeburg in Jogjakarta, the ARMA museum in Bali, as well as here in Darling Harbour.

You can read more about this fascinating and important period of Australian links with Indonesia in the museum’s Feature Story.

Dr Stephen Gapps – Curator

 

 

 

 

‘Freedom or Death!’ in Bali

Balinese Independence hero Ngurah Rai features on the 50000 rupiah bank note

Balinese Independence hero Ngurah Rai features on the 50000 rupiah bank note

Australians usually go to Bali for the beaches or scuba diving. Some go for the surfing, others to experience Balinese food and culture or see the volcanoes, monkeys, temples and rice fields. Recently, a team from the Australian National Maritime Museum went to Bali for a very different reason – to open an exhibition and lead a seminar on some amazing but largely forgotten shared histories of the two countries.

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‘You are all my friends’. Indonesia’s first Prime Minister addresses the Australian people in 1945

Prime Minister Sutan Syahrir (right) visited by Lord Killearn and Australian diplomat Thomas Critchley

Prime Minister Sutan Syahrir (right) visited by Lord Killearn and Australian diplomat Thomas Critchley, October 1946. Credit: Indonesian Press Photo Service (IPPHOS), National Library of Australia, nla.obj-143216454

In November 2015 the Australian Prime Minister, Malcom Turnbull, visited Indonesia. Prominent in government discussions were trade and economic opportunities between the two countries. Exactly 70 years ago, in an address to the Australian people by the first Prime Minister of Indonesia, trade and economic opportunities were also on the agenda.

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Indonesia’s Gallipoli — Heroes’ Day 10 November 2015

Indonesian historical reenactors. Image courtesy Djokjakarta 1945

Indonesian historical reenactors. Image courtesy Djokjakarta 1945

Hari Pahlawan or Heroes’ Day in Indonesia, like Anzac Day here, is taken very seriously. Every 10 November it is marked by a nationwide public holiday and surviving veterans and families of fallen soldiers march in parades across the country, very much like Australia’s Anzac Day parades.

Both events commemorate a military defeat. Australians commemorate the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign on the fateful day the Anzacs landed, 25 April. Indonesia’s Heroes’ Day commemorates the start of a three-week battle that was also a terrible defeat for the Indonesian forces involved.

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A museum of dioramas

A diorama from the independence museum in Bali, Indonesia

A diorama from the independence museum in Bali, Indonesia. Photo: Jeffrey Mellefont

On a recent trip to Indonesia I was struck by how many museums were based around dioramas. Rather than how we usually think of museums — as a display of things from the past (objects) with labels and text — many Indonesian museums are solely based around snapshots of history, with no objects in sight. They are examples of how museum-makers quite literally construct the past for their audiences.

We often think of dioramas as an outmoded, old-fashioned display method. But in Indonesia they are quite an accepted way of communicating stories. Many tell a sanctioned, official version of history. But I was surprised by just how popular they are with audiences.

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A Pinisi fleet and the Bahari Museum – Indonesian maritime heritage in Jakarta

A row of Pinisis in the harbour

A row of Pinisis in the harbour

In August 2015 the Australian National Maritime Museum collaborated with the Museum Benteng Vredeburg in Yogyakarta Indonesia in creating Black Armada — an exhibition about Australian support for Indonesian independence from Dutch colonial rule between 1945 and 1949. After installing and opening the exhibition I travelled to Jakarta and visited the city’s maritime museum and the working harbour with its surprising throng of wooden cargo vessels – called Pinisis.

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History and theatre – Black Armada exhibition opens in Indonesia

Reenactors-flag

In a spirit of collaboration, historical reenactors wave the Australian flag from the ramparts at the opening of Black Armada (Armada Hitam) at the Museum Benteng Vredeburg, Yogyakarta on 31 August 2015.

Exhibition openings in Indonesia are really something. At the Black Armada (Armada Hitam) opening at the Museum Benteng Vredeburg, Yogyakarta on 31 August there were decorations, traditional dancers, prayers, speeches, a sumptuous feast, and to top it all off, an explosion-packed historical re-enactment of a battle by Indonesian freedom fighters.
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Installing an ANMM exhibition in Indonesia

A dilapidated Fortress Benteng Vredeburg

A dilapidated Fortress Benteng Vredeburg c. 1970

The Black Armada (Armada Hitam) exhibition about Australian support for the early years of Indonesian independence just after WWII opened at the Australian National Maritime Museum on 20 August 2015. You can see the display in the Tasman Light gallery over the next few months. Black Armada is a collaboration with the Museum Benteng Vredeburg in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A travelling version of the exhibition opened there on 31 August.

Mr Peter Dexter AM, Chairman of the Australian National Maritime Museum Council, Curator Dr Stephen Gapps, Indonesian Ambassador His Excellency Mr Nadjib Riphat Kesoema and Museum Director and CEO Kevin Sumption at the opening of Black Armada

Mr Peter Dexter AM, Chairman of the Australian National Maritime Museum Council, Curator Dr Stephen Gapps, Indonesian Ambassador His Excellency Mr Nadjib Riphat Kesoema and Museum Director and CEO Kevin Sumption at the opening of Black Armada on 20 August 2015. Photo: Andrew Frolows

As curator of the display, I travelled to Indonesia to assist in the installation and attend the opening. Working with an Indonesian museum has been an amazing insight into Indonesian museums, history and culture.

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Seventy years of Indonesian independence

Black Armada_IDfinal_landscape

August 17 2015 is the 70th anniversary of Indonesia’s declaration of independence. The occupation of Indonesia by the Japanese during World War II had ended with the Japanese surrender on 15 August. A small group of nationalists swiftly chose the moment to proclaim independence.

The Dutch had controlled Indonesia for over 300 years before World War II and when the war ended, they wanted to return to their colony they called the Netherlands East Indies. They had fled to Australia at the advance of the Japanese in 1942 and established a government in exile. In 1945 the Dutch loaded ships with military arms and personnel and readied them to leave from Australian ports.

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